Manipuri Muslims in Assam

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Introduction

The Manipuri Muslim is an officially recognized term of “Meitei Pangal” in Assam. The Manipuri Muslim is one of the minority community of Assam and about 75000 (Seventy-five thousand) Manipuri Muslim lives in four different Districts of Asssam, i.e Cachar, Hojai, Golaghat and Tinsukia. The term Manipuri Muslim is recognized by the government of Assam in 1975 AD and it is listed in Sl. No. 13 of central O.B.C list of Assam in 1993 AD (Resolution No. and Date 12011/68/93-BCC © dt 10/09/1993 and 12011/21/95 – BCC dt 15/05/1995).

Etymology

The Manipuri Muslim is also known as “Pangal” and “Muglai” in Assam. It is a matter of fact that Manipuri Muslim of Assam call themselves “Pangal”. The term Pangal refer only to Manipuri speaking Muslims in Assam, where as this is not the case with Manipuri Muslims out of the Assam. The Manipuri Muslim excluding Assam, refers “Pangal” to the people following the Islamic faith of the world, in Assam “Pangal” refers to the Manipuri speaking Muslims only. It is also to be noted here that the term “Meitei Pangal” is not offten use in Assam.

Some of the local tribes of Assam called them “Moglai” the origin of the term can be attributed to “Monglai”. In early days Manipuri were known to Cachari (Dimassa) as “Monglai Cha” and Muslims were known to Cachari (Dimassa) as “Tru Cha”. The Manipuri were known as Tru Monglai, Tru means Muslim and Monglai means Manipuri. The term Tru Monglai is still in used even today by Cachari (Dimassa tribe). On the other side a folk tale is being taught to the younger generation, “ A Pangal came from Mughal and that is why Pangal’s are called as Muglai”. Professor Abid Raza Mazumder wrote in his book “ Barak Upotyakay Janabasatir Preksapote Musolman Samaj” as “ Mugholder bongsor rupe, Mughal + ai theke amader kotho-Banglai Muglai naam hoyese” which means, they being descendents of Mughal of Mughal the term “Muglai” as in spoken term of Bengali has being formed by adding Mughal + Came. However a section of historian do not support this theory, as mentioned by Professor Quazi Hamid Ali in his book “ The Manipuri Muslim”, “ Hence it would be wrong to think that the term “ Muglai” derived it’s origin from Mughal who came to Manipur in the seventeen Century”.

History

The earliest existence of Manipuri Muslim in Assam can be traced only in Barak Valley, mostly concentrate in Cachar District of Assam. The exact date of emargenc of Manipuri Muslim in Assam is not known. However, the historical evidence of earliest settlement of Manipuri Muslim in Assam can be traced in early nineteen century, a large number of Manipuri Muslim migrated during the seven years devastation popularly known as “Chahi Taret Khuntakpa” (1819 to 1826) in the history of Manipur. Maharaja Jai Singh also known as Byagya Chandra and Ching Thang Khomba had seven sons they are Maharaja Labeina Chandra, Maharaj Madhu Chandra, Yubaraj Tulsijit Singh, Maharaj Chaurajit Singh, Maharaj Marjit Singh, Yubraj Sanachauba and Maharaja Gambhir Singh. After the death of Maharaja Madhu Chandra, Maharaja of Manipur a struggle for succession followed among his brothers in Manipur. At the last the surviving princes, Chaurojit Singh, Marjit Singh, and Gambhir Singh then entered into endless intrigued against one another. The fourth brother, Marjit Singh induced the king of Ava ( present Burma) to espoused his cause and was installed by him as Maharaja of Manipur on the 17 th March 1814.


" Shri Jubaraj entered the Palace and Marjit become the Maharaja on Wednesday the 17” 
                                                     
  The Cheitharol kumbaba 2012:166
   Chaurojit Singh along with his younger brother Gambhir Singh fled to Cachar and was sheltered with Prince Govinda Chandra of Cachar. Gradually Prince Chaurojit Singh and Gambhir Singh succeeded Cachar and Govinda Chandra fled from Cachar in the middle of 1818. In the meantime the war brocked out between Maharaja Marjit Singh of Manipur and the Burmese ( Dec 1819), unfortunately Maharaja Marjit Singh of Manipur failed to defend the country. After the unsuccessful war against the Burmese Maharaja Marjit Singh fled to Cachar along with one-third of the population of Manipur on the 12th Dec 1819.
                                     
                                
 "The Maharaja failed to defend his troop and the country on Tuesday, the 12th and fled to Mayang”
                                             The =Cheitharol Kumbaba 2012:170 =

A larger number of Manipuri Muslim also accompany along with Maharaja Marjit Singh to Cachar and settled in Cachar. By that time Cachar was already under Manipuri Princes Chaurojit Singh and Gambhir Singh. Gambhir Singh settled himself at Goomra While Chaurojit Singh settled at Dungripar, present Baigehor. Marjit Singh was settled by his brothers Chaurojit Singh and Gambhir Singh, Marjit Singh made his capital at Jhaphirbund, present Lalla of Hailakandi.

                                          “Very soon they were joined by Marjit Singh, who was on the run from Manipur to escape the Burmes irruption. He shared Hailakandi and made Jhapirband his seat of new spoil”
     The Queen of Cachar or Heramboo and History of the Kachchhari
                                                   “Nalinindra Kumar Barman”

The migrants Manipuri Muslim who came along with Marjit Singh settled in different part of Cachar. In the year 1821 Govinda Chandra of Cachar, Cachari king appealed to Burmese for help against the three Manipuri Princes Chaurojit Singh, Marjit Singh and Gambhir Singh. Accordingly, the Burmese commander of Assom (Assam) advanced with a large army in May 1823. The Princes Chaurojit Singh, Marjit Singh and Gambhir Singh marched to Sylhet along with their subjects and took sheltered there under the British East lndia Company. Even after reoccupation of Manipur with the help of British East lndia Company in the year 1826 some of Manipuri, i.e Manipuri Muslim and Manipuri Hindu (Meitei) remained in Cachar, Tripura and Bangladesh. The Manipuri Muslim of Cachar, Tripura and Bangladesh are the descendent of those Manipuri Muslim who had not returned to their home land after reoccupation of Manipur.


Many of the Manipuri Muslim settled in the Maulovi Bazar, sub-division of Sylhet district of Bangladesh as they secured the favor of the then Zamindar of that locality. But in due course of time, some of them shifted to Cachar again as Sylhet was densely populated district in that time and many of them unavailable to obtained land in that densely populated district. Manipuri Muslims migration from Sylhet to Cachar remains till up to the middle of the 19th century.

We cannot ignore the earlier existence of Manipuri Muslims in Barak Vally prior to 1819 AD. Some small groups of Manipuri Muslim may also have migrated to Cachar prior to 1819 AD, in the year 1806 AD and 1814 AD. Professor Abid Raja Mazumder believes in the existence of Manipuri Muslim even before 1819 AD. According to him descendants of Ex. MLA Kutub Ahmed Maizumdar were among the first settlers of Manipuri Muslim in Barak Valley. Professor added by saying in the year 1806 AD, a group of 300 Manipuris were sent to Cachar along with Princess lnduprava of Manipur during her marriage with Cachari king Krishna Chandra by the king of Manipur. Among those 300 Manipuris, a few were Manipuri Muslims. Those Manipuri Muslims settled at Buribail, Jatrapur and Jairoltola.

“ Tader purbo purush Manipuri Musolmander 
 akti dol Manipur theke Cachar ase prothome Buribill, Jatrapur, Jairoltola ittadi elakai bosobosti stapon karesilen” 
         
"Barak Upotakay  Jonobasatir Preksapote Musolman Samaj” 

This will not be justifiable to say, along with Princes Chaurojit Singh and Gambhir Singh not a single Manipuri Muslim did not march to Barak Valley in the year 1814. King of Manipur Maharaja Chaurojit Singh, his brother Gambhir Singh along with some followers fled to Cachar in year 1814 after unsuccessful war against Marjit Singh. We can not deny the fact of being Manipuri Muslim as part of royal soldier of Manipuri king. Some of the Manipuri Muslim were loyal soldiers of Chaurojit Singh who also accompanied Maharaja Chaurojit Singh in his march to Cachar.

Population

Surname/Clan

Villages

Organizations

Festivals

Notable People

Haoba Mia Haurembam

He was one among the soldiers, who came along with Chaurojit Singh and Gambhir Singh in the year 1814 to Cachar. Haoba Mia belongs to Makak Amuba clane/Sagei, he temporarily settled at place like Borjatrapur, Jarontola in the beginning but at last he settled permanently at Boiropnanag ( Joynogor). Haoba Mia had three sons they were

  1. Ruboi Mia,
  2. Khela Mia and
  3. Suna Mia.

Presently descendents of Ruboi Mia settled at Bairapnagar, Epu Maoluvi/ Hazarat Peer Ketli Shah baba of Lalpani is agrand son of Ruboi Mia. Descendents of Khela Mia settled at Badripar, Pailapool etc and the descendents of Suna Mia settled at Jatarapur (Badripar).🌺 🌺🌺🥀🥀🥀🌺🌺🌺🌺🌺🌺🌺🌺🌺